This article discusses gender inequality and religious personal laws (RPLs) in India. The first part of the article explores the origin of the concept of RPLs and their selective reform by the state. The second part traces the development of various feminist legal responses to the issue of gender equality and the post-structural proliferation of differences. The third part illustrates how the shape of RPLs has repercussions for the design and scope of other laws. The last part develops an argument for a reconceptualizing of categories that allow for pursuing differences and justice together.