Five experiments were conducted in order to determine which of two hypotheses, initially proposed by Rock (1990), accounts for interactions between oriented elements in a visual scene. We also explored the suggestion that two hypothetical processes—namely, frame of reference and hierarchical organization—describe phenomena arising from distinct mechanisms (Spinelli, Antonucci, Daini, Martelli, & Zoccolotti, 1999). Double inducing stimulus versions of one-dimensional and two-dimensional tilt illusions, the rod-and-frame illusion, and combinations of these were used. Our data suggest that both hypotheses can predict orientation interactions in conditions in which only one mechanism—namely, the global visual mechanism of symmetry axes extraction (Wenderoth & Beh, 1977)—is activated. Which hypothesis is appropriate to predict the perceived orientation depends on some physical features of the objects.