The purpose of this Chapter is to provide background information that will assist you in understanding some of the issues associated with young gifted and talented children. Among the topics we will review and discuss are the following: 1. Historical influences on the concept of 'giftedness'; 2. Gifted and talented children in the Australian context; 3. Identification of young gifted and talented children; and 4. Differentiation of giftedness and its co-existence with other conditions.