The role of bilingual assistance may be an important consideration in classrooms, particularly in the early stages of learning a language. Some of the learners who participated in the individual case studies reported in this volume were enrolled in a bilingual classroom with a bilingual teacher. While others were not enrolled in bilingual classrooms, they made use of bilingual resources, and also used their first languages in the classroom. The case study classroom (reported in Chapter 9) had a monolingual teacher, but two bilingual aides. This chapter examines the views of both learners and teachers on the value and role that bilingual assistance may have in the classroom, beginning with a brief historical overview of earlier research.