Many studies have been conducted to examine how aspects of personality (and other individual differences) influence not just creativity but also its workplace application, innovation. Other studies have investigated the characteristics of a situation - the working environment - that might enhance or restrict innovation. Few studies, however, have looked at both to examine the relative and interactive roles of individual and situational variables in determining individual innovation. Fewer still have dealt with the dynamics of the innovation process. Since motivations, obstacles and priorites vary over an innovation cycle, a factor that promotes one stage of innovation may not be of beneift during other stages. A survey study of 260 employees demonstrated that while both individual factors (relating to proactive behaviour) and situational factors (characteristics of jobs and organisations) were important, they played different roles at different stages of the innovation process. Individual differences in proactivity were important throughout the innovation process, but seemed to be particularly important during early stages. Situational factors were important both early and late in the innovation process. There were also interactions between individual and situational factors, such that higher levels of job autonomy boosted innovation much mroe among more proactive employees.