We report the successful use of 2D electrophoresis, MALDI MS/MS and chemical derivatisation protocols of guanidination and sulfonation to identify over 100 protein spots present in early marsupial milk (tammar wallaby) at 40 days lactation, where a limited translated genomic database is publicly available for cross species matching and protein identification. Of the proteins identified, 25 matched to 6 existing marsupial milk protein sequences in the NCBI database; another 6 were identified with high confidence to other mammals and have not previously been identified in marsupial milk. By using chemical derivatisation, the reliable identification of a further 81 proteins was achieved. The identified proteins could be grouped into three main functional categories — transport, nutrition and immune protection. All these proteins play a potential role in determining growth and immunological protection of the highly altricial marsupial young at 40 days after birth.