The spread of Byzantine culture and its influence on regions beyond its immediate control was considerable and long lasting. From a Russian perspective, the most important legacy of the Byzantine Empire was its impact on the development of Russian society and culture, which followed the acceptance in the lOth century of the Orthodox religion by the ancestors of modern-day Russians. Through this impact Byzantine Christianity has had a profound and permanent effect on Russian civilisation. This work will discuss the influence of Byzantine culture on the development of Russian architecture, music, language, literature, painting and sculpture from the 10th century to the present day. It is interesting to ask why one culture had such profound influence on so many aspects of another. Central to any answer is an appreciation of the interaction and changing relationships that have occurred between the Orthodox Church and the developing Russian State over the past one thousand years. We begin with a brief discussion of the history of pre-Christian Russia, describe the interaction of the Eastern Slavs with Byzantium and then trace some aspects of the development of the present day Russian society.