I. Introduction - 2. Background - 3. Role of indigenous peoples in international environmental law - 4. Role of indigenous peoples in Australian environmental law - 5. The cultural importance of hunting and gathering for indigenous peoples - 6. Co-management as a strategy for indigenous participation in wildlife management in Australia - 7. New South Wales co-management - 8. Marine co-management - 9. Northern Territory and Queensland co-management - 10. Lessons learnt from Africa - Community Based Wildlife Management - 11. Towards Community Based Wildlife Management in Australia - 12. Problems with the Community Based Wildlife Management approach -13. Concluding comments.