Cultural values of individual and social responsibility were investigated through adolescents’ ideas about children’s household work. A total of 4627 adolescents from six countries completed questionnaire items about the age children should begin chores, the value of children’s participation, and the appropriateness of payment. Differences were found between countries for all questions but notably for the question of payment. Adolescents in the USA, Australia, and Sweden were more likely to support a general payment associated with children’s household work, whereas adolescents in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Hungary were more likely to oppose payment. All differences interacted with type of task(self-care and family-care), corresponding to a relative emphasis on individual and social responsibility.