A new hereditary syndrome characterized by a frontoparietal lobe pseudotumor and retinal capillary abnormalities is described. A pedigree is presented in which characteristic ophthalmic findings have been found in ten family members and are suspected in eight additional family members spanning a total of four generations. Typical retinal findings include perifoveal capillary obliteration, peripheral focal capillary occlusion, and microvascular abnormalities, particularly involving the posterior pole. Eight patients spanning three generations had a central nervous system pseudotumor with identical histopathology. Histopathologic analysis of brain tissue shows a characteristic pattern of an unusual vasculopathy without vasculitis characterized by fibrinoid necrosis and resulting in necrosis of white matter with sparing of cortical brain tissue. The pedigree shows an apparent autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with delayed expression of abnormalities. Of note, two patients unrelated to the pedigree having similar neuropathologic and retinal findings also have been seen at the authors' institution.