Interstitial deletions in chromosome 22 and features associated with CATCH-22 syndrome have been reported in patients with conotruncal congenital head anomalies. Absent pulmonary valve syndrome is characterized by absent or rudimentary pulmonary valve cusps, absent ductus arteriosus, conoventricular septal defect, and massive dilation of the pulmonary arteries. Because absence of the ductus arteriosus is a key element in the pathogenesis of this syndrome and aortic arch malformations are frequently seen in patients with CATCH-22 syndrome, we hypothesized that patients with absent pulmonary valve syndrome would have a high incidence of deletions in the critical region of chromosome 22. Eight patients with absent pulmonary valve syndrome were studied. Metaphase preparations were examined with fluorescent in situ hybridization of the N25 (D22S75) probe to the critical region of chromosome 22q11.2. Deletions were detected in 6 of 8 patients. The presence of deletions in chromosome 22 in most of the patients we have examined with a diagnosis of absent pulmonary valve syndrome supports a specific genetic and embryologic mechanism involving the interaction of the neural crest and the primitive aortic arches as one cause of congenital absence of the pulmonary valve.