Genome sequences and high diversity cDNA arrays have provided a detailed molecular understanding of immune responses in a number of invertebrates, including sea urchins. However, complementary analyses have not been undertaken at the level of proteins. Here, we use shotgun proteomics to describe changes in the abundance of proteins from coelomocytes of sea urchins after immunological challenge and wounding. The relative abundance of 345 reproducibly identified proteins were measured 6, 24 and 48. h after injection. Significant changes in the relative abundance of 188 proteins were detected. These included pathogen-binding proteins, such as the complement component C3 and scavenger receptor cysteine rich proteins, as well as proteins responsible for cytoskeletal remodeling, endocytosis and intracellular signaling. An initial systemic reaction to wounding was followed by a more specific response to immunological challenge involving proteins such as apolipophorin, dual oxidase, fibrocystin L, aminopeptidase N and α-2-macroglobulin.