This article is in part a photo essay looking at Brazil as a case study of human population growth. A country of stark contrasts between poverty and affluence, beauty and pollution, shantytowns and skyscrapers, Brazil is considered to provide insights into the likely future of urbanisation in other parts of the developing world. In developing countries, the urban population is increasing much faster than in more-developed regions. With the world‘s total urban population expected to reach 5.1 billion by 2025, what will happen when the consumption patterns of highly urbanised societies become global? How will developed countries take responsibility? With human population soaring, what will our limits be?