Innovation Project Portfolio Management (IPPM) practices are a dynamic capability that provides competitive advantage by dynamically adjusting the organisation’s portfolio of projects and resource allocation profile for the best innovation outcomes. A relatively new body of empirical research into IPPM practices is starting to generate findings related to IPPM practices and innovation outcomes. However this research is fragmented and lacks a unifying theoretical base. The resource-based view of strategy, in particular the dynamic capabilities approach, provides a theoretical framework to unify IPPM research. A ‘processes, positions and paths’ perspective on IPPM practices helps to clarify the ways that IPPM practices contribute to competitive advantage. Existing empirical research into the processes used for IPPM reveals some links to innovation outcomes, but does not try to explain causality. Improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for competitive advantage through IPPM practices is found in research on positions (how IPPM processes draw upon and contribute to the underlying resource position) and paths (the role of past decisions and organisational paths in shaping IPPM processes as well as future options and decisions).