Current environmental changes are complex and global in both their causes and consequences. Widespread concern over the state of the environment has resulted in the need for global monitoring and databases of information for both detecting trends and improving the science-policy connection. Transparent environmental information and standardised reporting are prerequisites for improved environmental governance. Indeed scientific assessments, measuring, reporting and monitoring lead to good governance and sound management at different levels. A range of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) also require compliance measures such as information gathering, reporting and monitoring. Nevertheless, the lack of standardised reporting requirements, measurement criteria, reliable data and global monitoring programs, is a current environmental crosscutting issue that affects the success of international environmental law as well as the achievement of broader environmental goals. This article considers the international laws, tools and processes regarding reporting and monitoring practices, identifies existing weaknesses and outlines possible strategies to overcome challenges and enhance the global governance of the environment.