There is no one model, no paradigm, that uniquely defines arc–continent collision. Natural examples and modelling of arc–continent collision show that there is a large degree of, and variation in, complexity that depend on a number of key first-order parameters and the nature of the main players; the continental margin and the arc–trench complex (the arc–trench complex includes the arc and the subduction zone). Although modelling techniques can be used to gain insights into these, they cannot and do not aim at reproducing the messiness of nature. In natural examples, identifying the nature of the main players involved, such as the age, physical properties, and pre-existing structure of the margin and the arc is just a beginning. Once this is done, parameters such as time, convergence velocity and vector need to be taken into account when determining the tectonic processes that were operative in any one arc–continent collision. In active examples, such as those in the southwest Pacific, some of these first-order parameters can be readily determined, and the nature of the main players easily assessed. Fossil arc–continent collisions, however, have commonly undergone post-collision deformation, erosion, and possibly partial dispersion to be left outcropping in the middle of a forest, with many of the key ingredients missing or hidden. This leaves the geologist to resort to comparison with other natural examples and with models that are mechanically constrained and simplified reproductions of the process to reconstruct and explain what may have been there and, importantly, what processes may have been operating and when. We attempt to show that this is not an easy task that can be put into one simple model. In this chapter we do not present a model for arc–continent collision. Instead, we begin with the main players involved, highlighting the characteristics of each that likely have a major influence on an arc–continent collision. Then, we investigate a range of possible processes that could take place once an intra-oceanic volcanic arc collides with a continental margin.