We define Hopf monads on an arbitrary monoidal category, extending the definition given in Bruguières and Virelizier (2007)  for monoidal categories with duals. A Hopf monad is a bimonad (or opmonoidal monad) whose fusion operators are invertible. This definition can be formulated in terms of Hopf adjunctions, which are comonoidal adjunctions with an invertibility condition. On a monoidal category with internal Homs, a Hopf monad is a bimonad admitting a left and a right antipode.Hopf monads generalize Hopf algebras to the non-braided setting. They also generalize Hopf algebroids (which are linear Hopf monads on a category of bimodules admitting a right adjoint). We show that any finite tensor category is the category of finite-dimensional modules over a Hopf algebroid.Any Hopf algebra in the center of a monoidal category C gives rise to a Hopf monad on C. The Hopf monads so obtained are exactly the augmented Hopf monads. More generally if a Hopf monad T is a retract of a Hopf monad P, then P is a cross product of T by a Hopf algebra of the center of the category of T-modules (generalizing the Radford-Majid bosonization of Hopf algebras).We show that the comonoidal comonad of a Hopf adjunction is canonically represented by a cocommutative central coalgebra. As a corollary, we obtain an extension of Sweedler's Hopf module decomposition theorem to Hopf monads (in fact to the weaker notion of pre-Hopf monad).