CATARACT is common and becoming more common due to an ageing population. Cataract surgical rates are increasing due to the demographic shift and advances in surgical tools and techniques. Timing of surgery depends on a personalised assessment of the individual's visual disability relative to their visual needs and lifestyle. Modern cataract surgery is safe and highly effective in visual rehabilitation, while also allowing the opportunity to correct pre-existing refractive errors during a single procedure. Exciting new developments are expected in surgical technique, devices and intraocular lenses in the years ahead.