Objectives: Studies investigating the efficacy of intra-oral myofascial therapies (IMT) for chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) are rare. The objective of this randomized, controlled pilot study was to compare the effects of IMT and the addition of self-care and education over 6 months on four common TMD outcome measures: inter-incisal opening range, jaw pain at rest, jaw pain upon opening, and jaw pain upon clenching. Participants: Thirty myogenous TMD participants between the ages of 18 and 50 years, experiencing chronic jaw pain of longer than 3-month duration, were recruited for the present study. Intervention: Included patients were randomized into one of three groups: (1) IMT consisting of two treatment interventions per week for 5 weeks; (2) IMT plus 'self-care' involving education and exercises; and (3) wait list control. Main outcome measures: Range of motion findings were measured in millimetres by vernier callipers and pain scores were quantified using an 11-point self-reported graded chronic pain scale. Measurements were taken at baseline, 6 weeks post-treatment, and 6 months post-treatment. Results: The results showed statistically significant differences in resting, opening, and clenching pain and opening range scores (P<0.05) in both treatment groups compared to control at 6 months. No significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups during the course of the trial. Conclusions: This study suggests that IMT alone or with the addition of self-care may be of some benefit in the management of chronic TMD over the short-medium term. A larger scale study over a longer term (1–2 years) may be of further value.