Objective: To evaluate cellular hypertrophic activities in the mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) and the glenoid fossa (GF) during mandibular advancement in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of Sprague-Dawley rats, as evidenced by fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8). Methods and Materials: Fifty-five female 24-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four experimental and control groups, with a mandibular advancement appliance on the experimental rats' lower incisors. The rats were euthanized on days 3, 14, 21, and 30 of the study, and their TMJ was prepared for a immunohistochemical staining procedure to detect FGF8. Results: FGF8 expression was significantly higher among the experimental rats (P 5.002). Patterns of ascension and descension of FGF8 expression were similar in experimental and control samples. The results show an overall enhanced osteogenic transition occurring in both the MCC and the GF in experimental rats in comparison with controls. The level of cellular changes in the MCC is remarkably higher than in the GF. Conclusion: In the MCC and the GF, cellular morphologic and hypertrophic differentiations increase significantly during mandibular advancement. It is also concluded that endochondral ossification in the MCC and intramembranous ossification in the GF occur during adaptive remodeling.