This research evaluated the effectiveness of reading instruction targeting oral reading and phonological awareness for children with Down syndrome (affecting chromosome 21). The participants were 7 children ranging in age from 2 years, 11 months to 10 years, 8 months. Each child acted as his/her own control, with assessments of language, cognition, phonological awareness, word and short-passage comprehension, and oral reading ability conducted on four occasions (initially, preintervention, postintervention and delayed postintervention) over approximately a 12-month period. The intervention was conducted over 10 weekly sessions and involved individual instruction. The postintervention assessment results provided evidence that phonic reading instruction was generally effective in improving reading skills and phonological awareness of children with Down syndrome.