What if key episodes in Australia's past had turned out differently? If France had colonised part of Australia in the eighteenth century? If the ANZACS had played only a minor role in the Gallipoli landing in World War I? If Gough Whitlam's Labor government had been re-elected after its dismissal in 1975? If Aborigines had been granted citizenship much earlier? In the political realm, Jim Davidson asks What if Tasmania had become French?; Marilyn Lake wonders what would have happened had Alfred Deakin made a declaration of Australian independence; Helen Irving questions where we'd be if Federation had failed in 1900; James Walker asks What if Whitlam had won another opportunity to implement his program? The cultural questions include Peter Read asking What if Aborigines had never been assimilated?; Sean Scalmer examines the possible outcome if the attempted assassination of Arthur Calwell had been successful; and Ann Curthoys asks What if a men's movement had triumphed in the 1970s?