This study examined the joint factor structure of the WAIS-R and WMS-R in a sample of 289 participants (mostly males) with alcohol dependency. In a confirmatory phase we contrasted a range of factor models derived from previous analyses of the Wechsler scales. The best fitting model incorporated five factors representing Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Attention-Concentration, Verbal Memory, and Visual Memory, with reassignment of factor loadings for two subtests. The invariance of the measurement model was then examined comparing data from a large sample of healthy participants (J. R. Carstairs E. A. Shores, 1999). The results indicated that the number of factors was invariant across samples, and four of the factors satisfied the criterion of partial measurement invariance.