Property rights in general and land rights in particular have provided an underlying focus for development of intercultural relations between indigenous and settler populations in many areas. Starting with an exploration of competing discourses of property and human rights in international law, this article considers the interplay of legal, anthropological, and political discourses in delivering and/or denying indigenous peoples rights to their traditional territories. Drawing largely on the experiences of former British colonies, this article documents the importance of land rights as legal argument, cultural relationship, social movement, political proposition, and policy program. It explores the implications of this history of land rights for geographical thinking on key concepts such as human territoriality, boundaries, cultural landscapes, and human–nature relations. It advocates a wider consideration of indigenous rights as a basis for rethinking geography's relevance to indigenous futures rather than a limited focus on questions of land rights in isolation.