Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the previous termneuralnext term processing characteristics associated with word retrieval abilities previous termafternext term a phonologically-based previous termtreatmentnext term for previous termanomianext term in two stroke patients with aphasia. previous termNeuralnext term activity associated with a previous termphonologicalnext term and a semantic task was compared before and previous termafter treatmentnext term with fMRI. In addition to the two patients who received previous termtreatment,next term two patients with aphasia who did not receive previous termtreatmentnext term and 10 healthy controls were also scanned twice. In the two patients who received previous termtreatment,next term both of whose naming improved previous termafter treatment,next term results showed that activation patterns changed previous termafter treatmentnext term on the semantic task in areas that would have been expected (e.g., left hemisphere frontal and temporal areas). For one control patient, there were no significant previous termchangesnext term in brain activation at the second scan; a second control patient showed previous termchangesnext term in brain activation at the second scan, on the semantic task, however, these previous termchangesnext term were not accompanied with improved performance in naming. In addition, there appeared to be bilateral, or even more right than left hemisphere brain areas activated in this patient than in the treated patients. The healthy control group showed no previous termchangesnext term in activation at the second scan. These findings are discussed with reference to the literature on the previous termneuralnext term underpinnings of recovery previous termafter treatmentnext term for previous termanomianext term in aphasia.