Treatment for anomia in aphasia has been found to be effective; however, the linguistic and cortical mechanisms underlying treatment and recovery in aphasia are poorly understood. This study investigated the effectiveness of a phonological feature analysis treatment for anomia, using a multiple-baseline across behaviours design, as well as associated neural processing changes related to recovery after treatment. Six participants with aphasia were included. A subset of these patients received fMRI scans before and after treatment, as did patient control participants. Four of the patients improved substantially after treatment. Preliminary analysis of scan data suggest a shift from greater right to left hemisphere activation in one participant who improved after treatment, with no notable changes between scans 1 and 2 for the untreated control.