Arterial distensibility, assessed by the pulse-wave velocity (PWV), is an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether natriuretic peptides, acting locally, modify conduit artery distensibility in vivo. All studies were conducted in anesthetized sheep (n = 18) by using a validated ovine hindlimb model. In brief, the PWV was calculated, with the use of the foot-to-foot methodology, from two pressure waveforms recorded simultaneously with a high-fidelity dual pressure-sensing catheter placed in the common iliac artery. Drugs were infused either proximally, via the catheter to perfuse the segment of artery under study, or distally, via the sheath to control for any reflex changes in flow or sympathetic activation. First, the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) were studied. Second, the role of endogenous ANP was investigated by infusing the natriuretic peptide receptor type A (NPRA)-selective receptor antagonist A71915 . Third, A71915 was coinfused with ANP. Fourth, the NPRC-selective agonist cANF was infused. Infusion of CNP or des-[Gln18Ser19Gly20Leu21Gly22]-ANF-(4-23)-NH2 (cANF) had no effect on iliac PWV. However, infusion of ANP, and to a lesser degree BNP, resulted in a reduction in PWV (–9%; P < 0.01 and –6%; P < 0.05, respectively). A71915 increased iliac PWV from 2.97 ± 0.13 to 3.06 ± 0.13 m/s; P < 0.01. Coinfusion of A71915 with ANP completely abolished the effects of ANP (P < 0.01). Importantly, ANP-BNP infusion via the sheath did not alter PWV. In conclusion, ANP, and to a lesser extent BNP, modify large artery distensibility via the NPRA receptor. Neither CNP nor cANF altered PWV, suggesting that the NPRB and NPRC receptors do not acutely influence distensibility in vivo.