We report photonic quantum circuits created using an ultrafast laser processing technique that is rapid, requires no lithographic mask and can be used to create three-dimensional networks of waveguide devices. We have characterized directional couplers—the key functional elements of photonic quantum circuits—and found that they perform as well as lithographically produced waveguide devices. We further demonstrate high-performance interferometers and an important multi-photon quantum interference phenomenon for the first time in integrated optics. This direct-write approach will enable the rapid development of sophisticated quantum optical circuits and their scaling into three-dimensions.
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