Progress in high average power UV generation by nonlinear frequency conversion of the output of copper-vapor lasers (CVL's) is reviewed. The specific parameters controlling the efficiency of nonlinear frequency conversion using CVL's are highlighted, with CVL beam quality and matching the optical beam delivery system to the characteristics of the nonlinear crystal being identified as the most significant issues. Recent experimental studies of second harmonic generation (SHG) with single-CVL oscillators and CVL oscillator-amplifier systems show that by careful optimization of the CVL pump laser and beam delivery systems, it is now possible to generate multiwatt average powers in the UV with high optical conversion efficiency (up to 35%) and overall electrical efficiency (approaching 0.1%).
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