Deep-sea genetic resources and the interest of the biotechnology industry in their exploitation are emerging as a significant challenge for international oceans governance. Focusing on the ecosystems associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents in areas beyond national jurisdiction this book examines a range of emerging activities in the deep sea including bioprospecting, marine scientific research, mining and tourism and considers the effectiveness of existing international law and governance mechanisms to sustainably manage these activities. It includes a detailed examination of the nature and extent of bioprospecting in the deep sea and its relationship with other activities such as marine scientific research. The book sets out in detail suggestions for how international law and policy regimes could respond to these challenges. As the first detailed study on this issue it will be useful reference for academics, diplomats, economists, scientists and policy makers alike.